Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
Grind salt, black pepper, cumin, rosemary, fennel, red pepper flakes, and oregano to a coarse powder using a mortar and pestle. Add 2 cloves garlic and mash to a paste. Mix in brown sugar, wine vinegar, and 1 tablespoon olive oil; stir until paste is thoroughly combined.
Place pork chunks into a large roasting pan and spoon paste over meat; toss until meat coated.
Bake pork in the preheated oven for 1 hour; flip pork chunks and continue cooking until outside of meat has a browned crust, about 30 more minutes. Set aside and keep warm.
Pour 1 tablespoon olive oil into a skillet, place over medium heat, and add 2 sliced cloves of garlic; cook until garlic begins to sizzle, 1 minute. Stir beans into skillet and season with salt and red pepper flakes to taste; cook and stir until beans are heated through and coated with oil, 3 to 4 minutes. Pour in lemon juice and chicken stock and bring to a simmer. Mix arugula leaves into bean mixture and cook just until leaves are bright green, about 1 minute. Turn off heat and let mixture stand to allow arugula to wilt, about 1 more minute.
Place wilted arugula into the bottom of a serving bowl and top with beans and a chunk of caramelized pork; drizzle juices over meat to serve.
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